A book on mineralogy, which speaks about gemstones and their mining (Book 1 Chapter 3).
The Naval Trident by Duncan (Book 1 Chapter 4) - Possibly The British Trident, or, Register of Naval Actions by Archibald Duncan, first published in 1804?
An English translation of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton, 1687. The translation may have been the one done by Andrew Motte in 1729. Laurence was prepared to bring his Latin up to snuff to read the book to Temeraire in the original, but he was probably just as happy to find a translation. This becomes Temeraire's favourite book, almost sort of a bedtime story for him.
A book by (Pierre-Simon) Laplace, possibly one of the first four volumes of the Mécanique céleste published 1799-1805. Laurence finds this book to be somewhat heavy going.
A book of Oriental tales about dragons, translated and annotated by Sir Edward Howe.
A book by Gibbon, the second volume (Book 2 Chapter 3) - Probably The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Edward Gibbon's best known work. It was published in six volumes 1776-1789.
A French translation of the Arabian Nights (Book 2 Chapter 10) - Possibly the translation by Antoine Galland published in 1704, which was the first European version of the tales. Temeraire's reference to Ali Baba's cave (in a discussion of Requiescat's attempt to take over Temeraire's own cave) comes from the Arabian Nights.
Classical Chinese works, including the Analects of Confucius, which Temeraire refers to in a discussion with Majestatis.
Die Leiden des jungen Werther (Book 3 Chapter 11) by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, first published in 1774 and published in a revised edition in 1787.
Possibly On the Predestination of the Saints (De praedestinatione sanctorum) by St. Augustine of Hippo - Temeraire refers to Augustine's explanation of predestination in his brief discussion with Rev. Daniel Salcombe.